PHILOSOPHY – Michel Foucault

PHILOSOPHY – Michel Foucault


Michel Foucault was a French 20th century philosopher and historian who spent his career forensically criticizing the power of the modern bourgeois capitalist state, including its police, law courts, prisons, doctors and psychiatrists. His goal was to work out nothing less than how power worked and then to change it in the direction of a marxist-anarchist utopia. Though he spent most of his life in libraries and seminar rooms, he was a committedly revolutionary figure. He met with enormous popularity in elite Parisien intellectual circles. Jean-Paul Sartre admired him deeply and he still maintains a wide following among young people studying at university in the prosperous corners of the world. His background, which he was extremely reluctant ever to talk about and tried to prevent journalists from investigating at all costs, was very privileged. Both his parents were inordinately rich coming from a long line of successful surgeons in Poitiers, in west central France. His father, Dr. Paul Foucault, came to represent all that Michel would hate about bourgeois France. Michel had a standard upper class education. He went to elite Jesuit institutions, was an altar boy, and his parents hoped he would become a doctor. But Michel wasn’t quite like other boys. He started self-harming and thinking constantly of suicide. At University, he decorated his bedroom with images of torture by Goya. When he was 22, he tried to commit suicide and was forced by his father, against his will, to see France’s most famous psychiatrist, Jean Delay, at the Hôpital Sainte-Anne in Paris. The doctor wisely diagnosed that a lot of Michel’s distress came from having to keep his homosexuality and, in particular, his interest in extreme sadomasochism away from a censorious society. Gradually, Foucault entered the underground gay scene in France, fell in love with a drug dealer and then took up with a transvestite. For long periods in his twenties, he went to live abroad in Sweden, Poland and Germany, where he felt his sexuality would be less constrained. All the while, Foucault was progressing up the French academic ladder. The seismic event to his intellectual life came in the summer of 1953, when Foucault was 27 and on holiday with a lover in Italy. There, he came across Nietzsche’s book “Untimely Meditations” which contains an essay called “On the Uses and Abuses of History for Life”. In the essay, Nietzsche argued that academics had poisoned our sense of how history should be read and talked. They made it seem as if one should read history in some sort of a disinterested way in order to learn how it all was in the past. But Nietzsche rejected this with sarcastic fury. There was no point learning about the past for its own sake, the only reason to read and study history is to dig out from the past ideas, concepts and examples which can help us to lead a better life in our own times. This essay liberated Foucault intellectually as nothing had until then. Immediately, he changed the direction of his work and decided to become a particular kind of philosophical historian: someone who could look back into the past to help to sort out the urgent issues of his own time. Eight years later, he was ready to publish what’s recognizes as his first masterpiece: “Madness and Civilization”. The standard view is that we now treat people with mental illness in so much more of a humane way than we ever did in the past. After all, we put them in hospitals, give them drugs and get them looked after by people with PhD’s. But this was exactly the attitude that Foucault wished to demolish in “Madness and Civilization.” In the book, he argued that things way back in the Renaissance were actually far better for the mad, than they subsequently became. In the Renaissance, the mad were felt to be different rather than crazy. They were thought to possess a kind of wisdom because they demonstrated the limits of reason. They were revered in many circles and were allowed to wander freely. But then, as Foucault’s historical researches showed him, in the mid 17th century, a new attitude was born that relentlessly medicalized and institutionalized mentally ill people. No longer were they allowed to live alongside the so-called sane, they were taken away from their families and locked up in asylums and seen as people one should try to cure rather than tolerate for just being different. You can recognize a very similar, underlying philosophy in Foucault’s next great book: “The Birth of The Clinic.” His target here was medicine more broadly. He systematically attacked the view that medicine had become more humane with time. He conceded that, of course, we have better drugs and treatments now but he believed that in the 18th century the professional doctor was born and that he was a sinister figure who would look at the patient always with, what Foucault called, the “medical gaze,” denoting a dehumanizing attitude; that looked at a patient just as a set of organs, not a person. One was, under the medical gaze, merely a malfunctioning kidney or liver, not a person to be considered as a whole entity. Next in Foucault’s oeuvre came: “Discipline and Punish.” Here, Foucault did his standard thing on state punishment. Again, the normal view is that the prison and punishing systems of the modern world are so much more humane than they were in the days when people just used to be hung in public squares. Not so, argued Foucault. The problem, he said, is the power now looks kind but isn’t, whereas in the past it clearly wasn’t kind and therefore could encourage open rebellion in protest. Foucault noted that in the past, in an execution, a convict’s body could become a focus of sympathy and admiration, and the executioner rather than the convict, could become the locus of shame. Also, public executions often led to riots in support of the prisoner, but, with the invention of the modern prison system, everything happened in private, behind locked gates; one could no longer see and, therefore resist, state power. That’s what made the modern system of punishment so barbaric and properly primitive in Foucault’s eyes. Foucault’s last work was the multi-volume “History of Sexuality.” In the manoeuvres he performed in relation to sex are again very familiar. Foucault rebelled against the view that we’re all now deeply libarated and at ease with sex. He argued that since the 18th century, we have relentlessly medicalized sex, handing it over to professional sex researchers and scientists. We live in an age of what Foucault called “scientia sexualis” (“science of sexuality”) But Foucault looked back with considerable nostalgia to the cultures of Rome, China and Japan, where he detected the rule of, what he called, an “ars erotica” (“erotic art”), where the whole focus was on how to increase the pleasure of sex rather than merely understand and label it. Once again, modernity was blamed for pretending there’d been progress when there was in fact just the loss of spontaneity and imagination. Foucault wrote the last volume of this work while dying of AIDS, that he had contracted in a San Francisco gay bar. He died in 1984, age 58. Foucault’s lasting contribution is to the way we look at history. There are lots of things in the modern world that we’re constantly being told are “fantastic,” and were apparently very bad in the past; for example education or the media or our communication systems. Foucault encourages us to breakaway from optimistic smugness about now and to go back and see in history many ways of doing things which were perhaps superior. Foucault wasn’t trying to get us to be nostalgic, he wanted us to pick up some lessons of way back in order to improve how we live now. Academic historians have tended to hate Foucault’s work. They think it inaccurate and keep pointing out things he hadn’t quite understood in some document or other, but Foucault didn’t care for total historical accuracy. History for him was just a storehouse of good ideas, and he wanted to raid it rather than keep it pristine and untouched. We should use Foucault as an inspiration to look at the dominant ideas and institutions of our times, and to question them by looking at their histories and evolutions. Foucault did something remarkable: he made history life-enhancing and philosophically rich again. He can be an inspiring figure for our own projects.

100 Comments

  • tallaganda83 says:

    What a crackpot.

  • C B says:

    I wish he was still alive so I could punch him in the face.

  • Nugget of Truth - Eric King says:

    This was fascinating. Thank you.

  • raphael ward says:

    rich boy trying to be a rebel against his dad, like "the voice of the people" he is not the voice of the people, like marx, he is not the common man and cares not about the common man but uses the common man's cause for self righteous virtue signalling purposes in order to attack everyone else, fake revolutionaries ruined the revolution

  • anonymouse says:

    oh, another thing; you didnt mention all the people he knowingly infected with a deadly virus

  • soundofsilence says:

    what a fag

  • Karolis Br says:

    F socialists

  • priyanka negi says:

    This is useful but the speed was too fast to understand…if you can post this with a slower speed. The content is awesome otherwise.

  • hamnose says:

    New way to look at history? Make conjectures about how things may have been, sight a few examples and go on to attack your own culture. Was he not aware of how gay people were treated under socialist governments of his time? Were mad people really free to roam the countryside in the Middle Ages? I am amazed. It's all bunk. And you have an academia and intelligentsia nurture it along.

  • Leticia Cortez says:

    He´s admired all over the world, not only the ¨prosperous corners of the world¨, but also in the poorest corners. I am a woman, teacher, immigrant who lives in poverty but who adores Foucault.

  • Ivan Hasudungan says:

    focault life represent of leftist,,they are the real schizophrenic people and must not allowed free to disturb quite conservative family

  • Alejandro Morales says:

    Foucault was so messed up. It is hilarious that Post Modernists reject all grand narratives but accept Marxism, a grand narrative with a horrible history of oppression. This nonsense needs to stop being taught in universities; all it does is make society worse. It amazes me that anyone studies this idiot.

  • Rıdvan DALGIÇ says:

    Really love this vide. But never appreciate Foucault. Sorry for you.

  • wovfm says:

    Focault was a let it all hang out nihilist who did not believe in borders or barriers for that matter which led to his early exit from AIDS. Yup Mikey borders and barriers work but do spout on.

  • Marco Alessandro says:

    Michelle fucall. What a ass

  • Marco Alessandro says:

    Ya! absolutely Fck all!

  • Bob Bob says:

    I mean, have you ever tried being a doctor? It's a rather technical job and you do tend to see patients are organs to be analyzed, that's literally your role there. I don't get the criticism. Being humane in thid means trying your best to find the malfunctions in the organs and cure them. Inhumane is when you're a shit doctor and just lazy.

  • Lise Marie Caron says:

    I'm from France and I don't giv a fuck 😭😂

  • Dom1118 says:

    Snake oil salesman.

  • Abdul says:

    This is what the soldiers died for in WWII to have society uphold a suicidal homosexual fascinated with sadomasochism. Go fight for the GAY DISCO and burn in Hell with Foucault.

  • Pankaj Singh says:

    This is one is my least favorite video of SOL..may be I am biased by the notion that present is better than the past..

  • Kape Diten says:

    You seem to not comprehend anything about Foucault main concept.It is too complex for the simply anglo-Saxon world.

  • Jslayallday92 S says:

    Aids is gross

  • Hochmeister Ulrich of Frankfurt says:

    So, he was having issues with his parents and so he extrapolated them to authority, societal norms and day to day life, in which it's all just a rebellion without a certain or a clear goal, other than total liberation of aggressive behaviour against established power, social conformity/order and sexuality.
    I don't know, but this sounds extreme.

  • steve blanchard says:

    pretty sure no one would listen to this if the narrator didnt have such a nice accent…

  • Starlyn Tejada says:

    so he was the first hipster?

  • bxhrbr says:

    I was just thinking about that sex part today. There's this grand illusion that there is a human, and I stress the word human, consciousness in society, and awareness of sex is apart of that. It's exactly that however, an illusion. It doesn't actually exist, it's a machination. Society is therefore a disappointment for those that may be aware of reality, a childish charade, a nightmarish hell of idiocy and ruin that one is thrown into. That get's back to the beauty of Foucault's philosophy, his main dissertation, which is that, in fact, society is trapped within this significant illusion, this mental prison. As a result, society is unbelievably lame, essentially, lol.

  • Kurt Gödel says:

    Michel Foucocaine. He was a coke addict and a perverted sociopath.

  • Osman Hamurcu says:

    According to this video he is more like a sociologist

  • julian polanski says:

    hanged not hung

  • Rosemeire Calandro says:

    que mera

  • Nabaneet Sharma says:

    Nobody :
    Cat : I'm soooooo blogging about this

  • Johan Matzen says:

    In Denmark, virtually all students of the humanities are forced to read Foucault at some point. He is by far the most influential intellectual in terms of required reading. Let that sink in.

    In my mind he is a total fraud. I especially hate the way he intentionally obscures his sentences in order to convey as little actual meaning as possible. Also, his ideas on power are unfathomably naive and destructive.
    I really think we need a concerted effort to unmask leftist word salad like Foucault's writings when we see it. Of all the things I've read, he is the worst.

  • Timothy Sheridan says:

    congradulations the over populating equitorial people control most of the northern hemisphere.
    search google for "vape", theubie.com is missing.
    the whole planet os over populating now.

  • Amanda Freitas says:

    I think that more important than talking about his sexuality is to show the difference between the Genealogical phase of his Works and the Archeological phase. That's what REALLY changed philosophy and social Sciences.

    I am sorry but this was a very poorly done try of covering up Foucault's academic Works. Not even close. C'mon, he used to sit in the most important chair of academic philosophy in Sorbornne, that is like being officially declared the most important academic personality of your ENTIRE GENERATION

  • Luigi Pati says:

    wow, I have never been so shocked at a philosopher in less than two minutes. Philosophers are all weird and wonderful people. However, you cannot compare the brutality that existed 2000 years ago when people were being fed to lions as a spectacle to be seen by degenerates, or people being burned at the stake, and now. If I had to choose whether to live during the Dark Ages or 1950's New York, I'd surely choose the latter.

  • Tim Coolican says:

    He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth, developed Daddy issues, had no goals or responsibilities (and thus no meaning), became nihilistic and self-harming, delved into a life of gay 'clubbing' and partying, tried to hide in academia as he had no useful skills, came up with his own warped ideology, and died a deserving death. His life was just one big party where he couldn't provide any useful contribution, so he made shit up. He made no contribution what-so-ever to this world, let alone anything that should be taught to future scholars.

  • Ron Mosely says:

    Philosophy built around a sick MTF! And because of this spoiled nut , Umberto Eco had to make a big deal about a got damn Pendulum

  • K. Theodos says:

    I've watched many of these videos and am very impressed by many of the philosophers that are the subjects of these videos. But not this guy. He's another example of articulate buffoonery.

  • Ronald Dash says:

    He should have lived for more years.

  • Doubleplus Ungood says:

    Foucault was a social construct…

  • Robert Galletta says:

    POST MODERNISM, AT IT'S BEST, IS A REEVALUATION OF CULTURAL VALUES.

  • Colin-kun :3 says:

    I wouldn’t follow that suicidal failure of a person ever.. Why would anyone admire him after watching this. Ridiculous

  • William Buysse says:

    A good series given this digital form. It is distorting, neglectful and strange but then so are many contemporary assumptions.

  • JPM g says:

    How on earth could Foucault possibly know he "contracted AIDS in a San Francisco gay bar"?

  • voilaviolamh says:

    Where else does one contract AIDs but in a SanFran gay bar?

  • voilaviolamh says:

    Foucault was right about many things, but also terribly wrong about them, too.

  • Robert Binner Mattfeldt says:

    Michel Foucault was a classic degenerate. The exact type both Christians, and Nazis, swore had no place in society.

  • baasmans says:

    Foucoult starts with the conclusion: Western society is bad, and people should feel bad (because he felt bad), and then used confirmation bias, cherry picking and cynicism to make his case for it. And still people just as angry at the world as he was use his trickery to justify their lust for societal upheaval. We will suffer because of this insanity.

  • Lu Dega says:

    Another deranged homosexual who sees the world as completely wrong and only by converting all of us to his lifestyle is moral and just

  • Brian Boru says:

    Excellent production values, in support of an insanely evil man, seeking nothing less than the destruction of humanity.

  • Sinisterene says:

    Reminder that this faggot died of GRIDS

  • ScottishDMcK says:

    A gay middle class Marxist anarchist?

    I wonder if he realised how much of a unsurprising cliche he would’ve been today…

  • S. Andrei Ostric says:

    He seemed like a sad and frustrated man who did not find much joy in life.

  • David Williamson says:

    I think when Foucault said “we” he really meant “I”.

  • steiner333 says:

    Marxist anarchist utopia? This is the most wilful misrepresentation of Foucault's thought I have ever encountered

  • Brian Goodman177 says:

    The most overrated 'philosopher' ever.

  • Sanghoon Lee says:

    French philosophy died with Voltaire and Russeau.

  • Lucas Beliera says:

    I love the video itself, but its not very accurate tbh

  • Jérôme Mallem says:

    He was a pédophile.

  • saif masoom says:

    well….all we need to understand from life of Foucault is that he was a survivor. just study his childhood he was forced by parents which lead him toward mental illness and abnormal thoughts. thats why those repressed feelings and thoughts turned into gay and deconstruction the present era. and fight with soft aggression till dearth with AIDS.

  • Lazaro Monteagudo says:

    Incredible research. Thanks School of Life.

  • Deniz Güney says:

    Taking life lessons from a communist who died of AIDS

  • Robert Binner Mattfeldt says:

    Michel Foucault was a natural born degenerate: A person with a disorganized mind. This is an example of why the science of Eugenics came into being.

  • Halv Gud says:

    Please do Emil Cioran!

  • Silvia Hartmann says:

    All the symptoms of a child sex abuse surviver. I resonate.

  • Panda Clears says:

    His own evil killed him… gross

  • Bruno Fernandez says:

    Post modern neo Marxist scumbag

  • Abhro S Roy says:

    Why so many dislikes

  • Aelin Sardothien says:

    gayboy

  • Liam says:

    foucault was into gay bdsm?? iconic

  • Brain Inavat says:

    God hates homoz.

  • Survive the Jive says:

    Foucault was a pervert and a bad historian who pretended to be a philosopher.

  • Jingo Unchained says:

    The original rich kid university revolutionary dickhead

  • 123decoeli says:

    Nothing good comes out of Marxism. Not to say it doesn't 'borrow' some very interesting ideas. But then it twists them toward its own destructive end. The results of Marxism and Communism speak for themselves.

  • Nicholas Reid says:

    Apart, perhaps, from the violently anti-Semitic Nietzsche, it is hard to think of somebody so vacuous and incapable of reasoned or humane thought as Foucault – a genuinely nonsensical set of ideas elevated by him into dogmas. For those on this thread who say that this presentation focuses on his sexuality rather than his works, I can only say (a.) Yes I have read his major works, and there is little of merit in them; and (b.) his sexuality and inclinations were a key factor in shaping his unbalanced and inhumane views. Take a few deep breaths and ask yourself honestly if you would sooner live in a feudal or pre-Enlightenment world or the present one? Whether you would like medicine to still consist of leeches, blood-letting and trepanning? Whether you would like a return to public hangings, guillotinings and flogging Etc? Nowhere does the vacuous Foucault (who, as the popular piece of lavatory graffiti says, knew foucault about anything) concede anything to the democratic principle, to the concept of developed civil and legal human rights and to such concepts as charity and the social good. Essentaially, all his neurotic ravings contributed to the world were some half-baked concepts for sophomores to wave about before they pass on to maturity.

  • TheCactusjack1 says:

    Go back to reading. Stop watching this shit.

  • Lite–Wing Gift says:

    Foucalt was an emo before being an emo was cool

  • olitraiga says:

    It funny how when you learn about someone's private life and childhood suddenly it all makes sense.

    Foucault was just a spoiled little brat rebelling against the authority figures in his life. How pathetic

  • Finn TheHuman says:

    Gieeyyyyyyy.. fucking gay-ass French.

  • Shagg East says:

    Because of philosophers like Foucault Western Civilisation has abandoned what made it prosper and dominate the world. Law, order and institutions are the only things separating us from wild animals.

  • Gavin says:

    This video places more emphasis on his sexuality and upbringing than on his revolutionary thoughts and works. Disappointing for a supposed “philosophy” channel, but typical.

  • K says:

    he was a demagogue and big lier, he exaggerated about the Shah regime and advertised against him just in order to get money from Khomeini
    he met Khomeini and his guys a few times and advertised for them he was a dirty creature

  • Joe S. says:

    This is the downside of giving everyone a voice. People like you who learned about Foucault not by his writings, but from someone who’s friend’s mailman’s sister read a paragraph of his work and misunderstood it. Foucault was an anti-Marxist. His critique of Marxism is well understood. Down voting this garbage.

  • Abebi Adebayo says:

    This guy is literally just some faggot with mental problems. He was also a pedophile and knowingly spread HIV to several partners some of which were underage.

  • myoplex1 says:

    Oh yeah….. this guy is dude we should be listening to LoL

  • A says:

    Why should I listen to this guy? He was a pedophile who gave AIDS to many children. Disgusting human being.

  • PhilosoFeed says:

    He was literally just a smart gay guy who wanted to rationalize degeneracy. What an absolute waste of a good mind.

  • Free culture says:

    Without the family cash to get published Fuk-out would of been an ordinary fag.

  • Leaf Church says:

    So he had daddy issues.

  • annamariaiwsyfina karakaksidoy says:

    So he hated his father and his first work attacked exactly that, the doctors. Such a cliché. I hate this philosopher. Thank God he died young , but sadly not young enough. We could be spared some books of his.

  • Habib P N says:

    a bullshit life ! I dont have any need to learn from a public toilet

  • vsaluki R says:

    So basically Foucault decided that the best way to use history was to cherry pick it justify being a homosexual.

  • Mehmet Ata Bal says:

    These videos, alongside being helpful with short introductions to various figures of philosophy, commit a deep ideologogical crime, one that is especially visible in this Foucault. Rather then giving a mere summary of the life of the philisopher, they try to relate his experiences with the philosophy he created, which alters the perception of the audience in an utmost diabolical way. Such thing, just like Foucault argued, pushes the audience to "diagnose" the philisopher according to his past therefore stop trying to understand his philosophy but explain it by his experience thus ultimately making an abstract figure that must have symbolized a philosphy and ideals, a mere figure in history that his behaivour and thoughts are alieneted and only could be explained by his past. In other words, they present the figure from a perspective where we are alienated from his philosophy but more concerned about his personal life. STOP THIS!

  • Ryan B says:

    Foucault
    was a communist who marched a ring of french "Intellectual" pedophiles.

  • Udi M says:

    as much as I enjoy Foucault , his ideology regarding how the mentally ill should be treated as being eccentric is abit blase. we also have to recognise that the illnesses we observe today are different and do genuinely impede people's ability to function through day to day life, and from my experience working in MH,these illnesses have manifested through REAL trauma and are are very legitimate illnesses that need to be treated (mainly) through psychological intervention.. I do agree however there are people that are abit "mad" that live their lives differently, but they so without it negatively impacting their ability to function and remain healthy.

  • Eduardo Hernández Rodríguez says:

    I can see how Michel Foucault philosophy is hard for americans in this video, maybe because they still trust and support old discourses.

  • Podunzk says:

    Really ? You didn’t talk about Naissance de la Biopolitique…?

  • William Bunter says:

    Foucault did not say anything new or profound when he said we should learn lessons from history. This is something that could be said in any discussion in a pub. What he did was to put his ill-considered arguments into language which was deliberately complicated (and often meaningless) so that gullible readers and egotistical academics would be impressed. As for his ideas on letting mad people roam freely, I wonder what he would say to the relatives of people who were murdered by the likes of Sutcliffe, Hindley and the Wests. Lord Longford was, I would think, a big fan of Foucault.

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