Testing cosmetics on animals

Testing cosmetics on animals


Testing cosmetics on animals is a type
of animal testing used to test the safety and hypoallergenic properties of
products for use by humans. Because of the harm done to the animal subjects,
this testing is opposed by animal rights activists and others. Cosmetic animal
testing is banned in the European Union, India, Israel, and Norway.
Definition Using animal testing in the development
of cosmetics may involve testing either a finished product or the individual
ingredients of a finished product on animals, often rabbits, but also mice,
rats, and other animals. Re-using existing test data obtained
from previous animal testing is generally not considered to be cosmetic
testing on animals; however, the acceptability of this to opponents of
testing is inversely proportional to how recent the data is.
Legal requirements and status Due to the strong public backlash
against cosmetic testing on animals, most cosmetic manufacturers say their
products are not tested on animals. However, they are still required by
trading standards and consumer protection laws in most countries to
show their products are not toxic and not dangerous to public health, and that
the ingredients are not dangerous in large quantities, such as when in
transport or in the manufacturing plant. In some countries, it is possible to
meet these requirements without any further tests on animals. In other
countries, it may require animal testing to meet legal requirements. The United
States and Japan are frequently criticized for their insistence on
stringent safety measures, which often requires animal testing. Some retailers
distinguish themselves in the marketplace by their stance on animal
testing. Legal Requirements In Japan
Although Japanese law doesn’t require non-medicated cosmetics to be tested on
animals, it doesn’t prohibit it either, leaving the decision to individual
companies. Animal testing is required mainly when the product contains
newly-developed tar colors, ultraviolet ray protective ingredients or
preservatives, and when the amount of any ingredient regulated in terms of how
much can be added is increased. Japanese Brands such as Shiseido and
Mandom have ended much, but not all, of their animal testing. However, most
other leading cosmetics companies in Japan still test on animals.
=Places that have bans=Brazil, São Paulo
São Paulo a global city in Brazil, banned cosmetic animal testing in 2014.
European Union The European Union followed suit, after
it agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics
throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban cosmetics-related animal testing.
Imported cosmetics ingredients tested on animals were phased out for EU consumer
markets in 2013 by the ban, but can still be sold to outside of the EU.
Norway banned cosmetics animal testing the same time as the EU.
India Also in 2013, India announced a ban on
testing cosmetics on animals, thereby becoming the second country in Asia to
do so. Israel
Israel banned “the import and marketing of cosmetics, toiletries or detergents
that were tested on animals” in 2013. New Zealand
In 2015, New Zealand also banned animal testing.
Turkey Turkey “banned any animal testing for
cosmetic products that have already been introduced to the market.”
United Kingdom Animal testing on cosmetics or their
ingredients was banned in the UK in 1998.
=Places where prohibitions are considered=
Association of Southeast Asian Nations The Association of Southeast Asian
Nations is also potentially “making strides toward ending cosmetics testing
on animals.” Australia
In Australia, the End Cruel Cosmetics Bill will be introduced to Parliament in
March 2014, which would ban local testing, which generally doesn’t happen
there, and importation of cosmetics tested on animals.
Brazil Brazil’s legislation will vote on a
nationwide animal testing for cosmetics ban by the end of March 2014.
United States In March 2014, the Humane Cosmetics Act
was introduced to the U.S. congress which would ban cosmetic testing on
animals and eventually would ban the sale of cosmetics tested on animals.
South Korea South Korea are also potentially “making
strides toward ending cosmetics testing on animals.”
Taiwan Taiwan has launched a bill proposing a
ban on cosmetic testing on animals.=Other statuses=
China China currently requires mandatory
animal testing for cosmetic products, but there are plans to lift this
mandatory requirement in June 2014. Russia
In 2013, the Russian Ministry of Health stated “Toxicological testing is
performed by means of testing for skin allergic reaction or test on slime/eye
area or by use of alternative general toxicology methods. In this manner the
technical regulations include measures which provide an alternative to animal
testing”. Methods
Methods of testing cosmetics on animals include irritation or corrosion to the
skin or eye, dermal sensitization, airway sensitization, endocrine
disruption, and LD50. Alternatives
Cosmetics manufacturers who do not test on animals may now use in vitro screens
to test for endpoints which can determine potential risk to humans with
a very high sensitivity and specificity. Companies such as CeeTox in the USA ,
recently acquired by Cyprotex ,specialize in such testing and
organizations like the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, PETA and
many other organizations advocate the use of in vitro and other non-animal
tests in the development of consumer products. By using safe ingredients from
a list of 5,000 which have already been tested in conjunction with modern
methods of cosmetics testing, the need for tests using animals are negated.
Certification Companies producing beauty and household
products which do not to test their products on animals for any market can
request membership of The Leaping Bunny Program which allows to feature Cruelty
Free International’s Leaping Bunny logo on their products. The program sets
global standard of operations and sales. Certification can be obtained in the US
from The Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics In 2013 over
500 companies were certified. However, some company’s certifications were
revoked after it was discovered they continued to test on animals in Asia
Procedures of Animal Testing There is a strategy used in animal
testing laboratories titled the ‘ Three R’s:’ Reduction, refinement, and
replacement. The approach of reduction is built upon the ethics to have a
minimalized number of animal subjects being tested on for current and later
tests. Refinement suggests the planned distress and pain caused to an animal
subject be as minimalized as possible. Refinement focuses on making a home for
the animals before entering testing grounds in order to elongate the life of
laboratory animals. Discomfort to animals causes imbalance in hormonal
levels which create fluctuating results during testing. Replacement provides the
opportunity to study the response of cellular models, but in other words,
replacement searches for alternatives that could be done otherwise than
testing on animal subjects. See also
Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on non-human primates
Animal testing on rodents Cosmetics
The Three Rs Notes

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